\newfont{\sqi}{cmssqi8} \newcommand{\beq}{$$} \newcommand{\eeq}{$$} \newcommand{\beqa}{\begin{eqnarray}} \newcommand{\eeqa}{\end{eqnarray}} \newcommand{\beqas}{\begin{eqnarray*}} \newcommand{\eeqas}{\end{eqnarray*}} \newcommand{\gap}{\hspace*{2em}} \newcommand{\sgap}{\hspace*{1.2em}} \newcommand{\bi}{\begin{itemize}} \newcommand{\ei}{\end{itemize}} \newcommand{\ben}{\begin{enumerate}} \newcommand{\een}{\end{enumerate}} \newcommand{\stroke}{\; | \;} \newcommand{\bsli}{\begin{slide}{}} \newcommand{\esli}{\end{slide}} % \newcommand{\IR}{\makebox{\sf R \hspace{-13.5 pt} R \hspace{.3 pt}} } % \newcommand{\IR}{{I\!\!R}} \newcommand{\IR}{\makebox{\sf I \hspace{-9.5 pt} R \hspace{-7.0pt} }} %\newcommand{\R}{\IR} \newcommand{\real}{\IR} \newcommand{\IP}{\mbox{$I\!\!P$}} \newcommand{\IN}{\mbox{$I\!\!N$}} \newcommand{\IC}{\mbox{$C\!\!\!\!\raisebox{.75pt}{\mbox{\sqi I}}$}} \newcommand{\bmat}{\left[ \begin{array}} \newcommand{\emat}{\end{array} \right]} \newcommand{\bvec}{\left( \begin{array}{c}} \newcommand{\evec}{\end{array} \right)} \newcommand{\ul}{\underline} \def\half{{\textstyle{1\over 2}}} % my modification of the "itemize" environment for slitex % (avoids the painfully distorted default) \newcommand{\sitemize}{\begin{list}% {$\bullet$}{\setlength{\itemsep}{0 pt}\setlength{\topsep}{0 pt} \setlength{\partopsep}{0 pt}}} \newcommand{\bsitemize}{\sitemize} \newcommand{\esitemize}{\end{list}} \newcommand{\insitemize}{\begin{list}% {-}{\setlength{\itemsep}{0 pt}\setlength{\topsep}{0 pt} \setlength{\partopsep}{0 pt}}} \newcommand{\einsitemize}{\end{list}} \newcommand{\sitemizeii}{\begin{list}% {\bf --}{\setlength{\itemsep}{0 pt}\setlength{\topsep}{0 pt} \setlength{\partopsep}{0 pt}}} \newcommand{\cA}{{\cal A}} \newcommand{\cB}{{\cal B}} \newcommand{\cC}{{\cal C}} \newcommand{\cD}{{\cal D}} \newcommand{\cE}{{\cal E}} \newcommand{\cF}{{\cal F}} \newcommand{\cH}{{\cal H}} \newcommand{\cI}{{\cal I}} \newcommand{\cJ}{{\cal J}} \newcommand{\cK}{{\cal K}} \newcommand{\cL}{{\cal L}} \newcommand{\cM}{{\cal M}} \newcommand{\cN}{{\cal N}} \newcommand{\cP}{{\cal P}} \newcommand{\cS}{{\cal S}} \newcommand{\cT}{{\cal T}} \newcommand{\cU}{{\cal U}} \newcommand{\cV}{{\cal V}} \newcommand{\cW}{{\cal W}} \newcommand{\thetain}{\theta_{\rm in}} \newcommand{\thetaout}{\theta_{\rm out}} \newcommand{\D}{\Delta} \newcommand{\Dx}{\Delta x} \newcommand{\Ds}{\Delta s} \newcommand{\Dl}{\Delta \lambda} \newcommand{\Dlbar}{\Delta \bar{\lambda}} \newcommand{\lam}{\lambda} \newcommand{\lambar}{\bar{\lambda}} \newcommand{\lamhat}{\hat{\lambda}} \newcommand{\Dr}{\Delta r} \newcommand{\Dw}{\Delta w} \newcommand{\Dp}{\Delta \pi} \newcommand{\sigmin}{\sigma_{\rm min}} \newcommand{\sigmax}{\sigma_{\rm max}} \newcommand{\gammin}{\gamma_{\rm min}} \newcommand{\gammax}{\gamma_{\rm max}} \newcommand{\gambar}{\bar{\gamma}} \newcommand{\cNi}{{\cal N}_{-\infty}} \newcommand{\cNinf}{{\cal N}_{-\infty}} \newcommand{\xB}{x_{\cB}} \newcommand{\xN}{x_{\cN}} \newcommand{\sB}{s_{\cB}} \newcommand{\sN}{s_{\cN}} \newcommand{\DxB}{\Delta x_{\cB}} \newcommand{\DxN}{\Delta x_{\cN}} \newcommand{\DsB}{\Delta s_{\cB}} \newcommand{\DsN}{\Delta s_{\cN}} \newcommand{\Dz}{\Delta z} \newcommand{\Dlb}{\Delta \bar{\lambda}} \newcommand{\lb}{\bar{\lambda}} \newcommand{\Dgb}{D \bar{g}} \newcommand{\lB}{\lambda_{\cB}} \newcommand{\lN}{\lambda_{\cN}} \newcommand{\DlB}{\Delta \lambda_{\cB}} \newcommand{\DlBa}{\Delta \lambda_{\cB1}} \newcommand{\DlBb}{\Delta \lambda_{\cB2}} \newcommand{\DlN}{\Delta \lambda_{\cN}} \newcommand{\DgB}{D {g}_{\cB}} \newcommand{\DgN}{D {g}_{\cN}} \newcommand{\gB}{{g}_{\cB}} \newcommand{\gN}{{g}_{\cN}} \newcommand{\Dxaff}{\Delta x^{\rm aff}} \newcommand{\Dpaff}{\Delta \pi^{\rm aff}} \newcommand{\Dsaff}{\Delta s^{\rm aff}} \newcommand{\Draff}{\Delta r^{\rm aff}} \newcommand{\Dwaff}{\Delta w^{\rm aff}} \newcommand{\Dxcc}{\Delta x^{\rm cc}} \newcommand{\Dpcc}{\Delta \pi^{\rm cc}} \newcommand{\Dscc}{\Delta s^{\rm cc}} \newcommand{\Drcc}{\Delta r^{\rm cc}} \newcommand{\Dwcc}{\Delta w^{\rm cc}} \newcommand{\muaff}{\mu_{\rm aff}} \newcommand{\tx}{\tilde{x}} \newcommand{\tl}{\tilde{\lambda}} \newcommand{\ts}{\tilde{s}} \newcommand{\txB}{\tilde{x}_{\cB}} \newcommand{\txN}{\tilde{x}_{\cN}} \newcommand{\tsB}{\tilde{s}_{\cB}} \newcommand{\tsN}{\tilde{s}_{\cN}} \newcommand{\Range}{\mbox{\rm range}\,} \newcommand{\Null}{\mbox{\rm null}\,} \newcommand{\dist}{\mbox{\rm dist}\,} \newcommand{\Ker}{\mbox{\rm ker}\,} \newcommand{\Rank}{\mbox{\rm rank}\,} \newcommand{\CB}{c_{\cB}} \newcommand{\CN}{c_{\cN}} \newcommand{\AB}{A_{\cB}} \newcommand{\AN}{A_{\cN}} \newcommand{\AJ}{A_{\cJ}} \newcommand{\DB}{D_{\cB}} \newcommand{\DN}{D_{\cN}} \newcommand{\csubB}{c_{\cB}} \newcommand{\csubN}{c_{\cN}} \newcommand{\uB}{\hat{u}_{\cB}} \newcommand{\uN}{\hat{u}_{\cN}} \newcommand{\widebar}{\overline} \newcommand{\lamdba}{\lambda} \newcommand{\logeps}{\log \frac{1}{\epsilon}} \newcommand{\defeq}{\stackrel{\rm def}{=}} \def\eqnok#1{(\ref{#1})} \def\remark{\par{\it Remark}. \ignorespaces} \def\remarks{\par{\it Remarks}. \ignorespaces} \newcommand{\btab}{\begin{tabbing} \ \ \= thenn \= thenn \= thenn \= thenn \= thenn \= \kill} \newcommand{\etab}{\end{tabbing}} \newcommand{\bu}{{\bf u}} \newcommand{\dbu}{\delta_{\bf u}} \newcommand{\op}{\, \makebox{\rm op} \,} \newcommand{\eps}{\epsilon} \newcommand{\emax}{\makebox{\bf emax }} \newcommand{\emin}{\makebox{\bf emin }} \newcommand{\svmax}{\makebox{\bf svmax }} \newcommand{\svmin}{\makebox{\bf svmin }} \newcommand{\SIG}{\sigma} \def\stripe{\ifvmode\else\par\vskip-\baselineskip\vskip12pt\fi \hbox to \hsize{\leaders\hrule height 4.5pt\hfil}\vskip-\baselineskip \vskip 3.5pt \hbox to \hsize{\leaders\hrule height 1.5pt\hfil} \vskip -10pt} % begin slide with a heading and stripe \def\bs#1{\begin{slide} \begin{center} {\bf #1} \end{center} \stripe} % just begin slide \newcommand{\jbs}{\begin{slide}} % end slide \newcommand{\es}{\end{slide}}